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What is Outsider Art?

Adolf Wölfli, Bangali Firework (Bänggaalisches Feuerwärk), 1926, Colored pencil on paper, 18.5 x 24.5 inches (47 x 62.2 cm)

What is Outsider Art?

Although the roots of Outsider Art can be traced back thousands of years, it is most useful to look back to its most recent precursor, art brut (Raw Art) to hear the most vital articulations of its true spirit. In his 1947 manifesto, French artist and curator Jean Dubuffet described the term art brut as follows: "We understand by this term works produced by persons unscathed by artistic culture, where mimicry plays little or no part (contrary to the activities of intellectuals). These artists derive everything...from their own depths, and not from the conventions of classical or fashionable art."

In his 1972 book championing art brut, Roger Cardinal called it Outsider Art: "I believe that a paramount factor in the critical definition of the creative Outsider is that he or she should be possessed of an expressive impulse and should then externalize that impulse in an unmonitored way which defies conventional art-historical contextualization."

Dubuffet and Cardinal were writing primarily about extremely marginalized European artists: psychotics, mediums, and eccentrics. This has caused the common misconception that Outsider Art is essentially pathological, when in fact the central characteristic shared by Outsiders is simply their lack of conditioning by art history or art world trends.

Over the years, the parameters of Outsider Art have expanded dramatically to include art made by a wide variety of art-makers who share this common denominator of raw creativity. Outsiders come from all walks of life, from all cultures, from all age groups.

In recent years, Outsider Artists may have even come to outnumber Insider Artists who have achieved critical validation within the elite art world, and yet who speak with increasingly less clarity and relevance to us about the human experience. Dubuffet's description of officially recognized art has never been more relevant: "everyone immediately sprinkles it with champagne, and lecturers lead it from town to town with a ring through its nose. This is the false Monsieur Art."

Origins

Martín Ramírez, Untitled (Super Chief), 1954
Pencil and crayon on paper, 55 x 51 inches (139.7 x 129.5 cm

Origins

The genesis of Outsider Art could well be traced to an imagined prehistoric cave wall, to the work of your favorite eccentric visionary (think William Blake), or to the mythic artist-genius dreamed up by Romantic philosophers and poets. Outsider Artists began to emerge as a force to be reckoned with during the early 1920's, with the publication of two pioneering studies of art made on asylum inmates, conducted by European psychiatrists in search of universal truths about human creativity.

German Expressionists soon fell in love with the schizophrenic artists presented in these books--especially Adolf Wölfli, Karl Brendel and August Naterrer--and adopted them as creative muses by appropriating their imagery.  In Paris, the Surrealists looked to the same books for inspiration, and also to Spiritualist Mediums such as Augustin Lesage and Helene Smith who were famous local practitioners of automatic drawing.

It wasn't until after World War II that Outsider Art was truly recognized as more than simply source material for the modernist avant-garde. The French artist Jean Dubuffet took the Surrealist obsession with Outsiders to a new level by daring to collect and exhibit their work. Not only did he champion the artwork of schizophrenics and local mediums, but he also celebrated art made by eccentric isolates and self-taught laborers. Dubuffet recognized in the work of these divergent groups one unifying trait: a raw quality untouched by academic rules or current trends.

In 1947, Dubuffet staged a ground-breaking, manifesto-driven exhibition in Paris, aptly naming his category art brut (Raw Art). Dubuffet's Collection de l'Art Brut grew in the subsequent decades, and eventually found a home in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1976. This unique collection might well have remained in isolation, if not for the publication of a 1972 study of art brut entitled Outsider Art written by the British scholar Roger Cardinal. Cardinal's book, and his 1979 London exhibition Outsiders, launched Outsider Art as a powerful global force that continues to challenge and redefine the limits of what we call art.

The critical definition of the creative Outsider is that he or she should be possessed of an expressive impulse and should then externalize that impulse in an unmonitored way which defies conventional art-historical contextualization.

                                                        - Roger Cardinal

History

Images

Judith Scott, Untitled, 2003, Mixed media, 20 x 16 x 10 inches (50.8 x 40.6 x 25.4 cm), Courtesy of Creative Growth Art Center

Images

Augustin Lesage, Untitled, 1927, oil on canvas, 47x37cm.

Dubuffet did not permit his Collection de l'Art Brut to circulate after its permanent installation in Lausanne, in 1976. While previous exhibitions like Harald Szeemann's 1972 edition of Documenta brought wider attention to the radical category of art brut in Europe, it was the 1979 Outsiders exhibition at London's Hayward Gallery that launched it internationally. Co-curators Roger Cardinal and Victor Musgrave expanded Dubuffet's original vision to include American artists such as Henry Darger, Martin Ramirez and Joseph Yoakum, opening the door to artists influenced by vernacular culture, a trait Dubuffet had previously rejected. What had started as a focused challenge to the rigid limits of the mid-20th century Paris art world was now emerging as an international phenomenon poised to unify a vast range of marginal art under the banner of Outsider Art.

By the early 1980s, Outsider Art began to radically transform the field of American Folk Art. Curators, collectors, scholars, and critics who had been struggling unsuccessfully to fit contemporary marginalized artists into the traditional category of Folk Art began to adopt the revolutionary spirit of Outsider Art. Collectors and curators began to make bold, contradictory acquisitions and new, risky curatorial moves that presented American and European artists side by side. The spark of Outsider Art illuminated Folk Art exhibitions throughout the 1980s, including the Corcoran Gallery's seminal Black Folk Art in America:1930-1980, Muffled Voices: Folk Artists in Contemporary Art at the Paine Webber Art Gallery in New York and Baking in the Sun: Visionary Images from the South at the University of Southwest Louisiana.

These and other exhibitions forced a radical split between the traditional and the contemporary aspects of this field. Contemporary Folk Art became synonymous with Outsider Art, despite scholarly rejections on grounds of political incorrectness.

By the early 1990s, Outsider Art was poised to challenge the arbitrary boundaries of the art world. LACMA's 1992 exhibition Parallel Visions: Modern Artists and Outsider Art demonstrated the powerful influence Outsiders had exerted on the mainstream, from the early 20th century on. During the last two decades, experimental curators and commercial art dealers have played a major role in staging hybrid shows including After Nature at the New Museum (2008), Dargerism at the American Folk Art Museum (2008), and Glossolalia at MoMA (2008), that combined Outsider and Insider Artists, rendering the constructs of mainstream and margin obsolete. The most profound development in the recent history of Outsider Art has been the global emergence of art fairs and events dedicated to the work of Outsiders such as the Outsider Art Fairs in New York and Paris, as well as the increasing inclusion of Outsiders in long-established international exhibitions such as Documenta, the Carnegie International and more recently, the groundbreaking Venice Biennale #55 (2013), named The Encyclopedic Palace by curator Massimiliano Gioni to honor the vision of Italian-American Outsider Artist Marino Auriti. Gioni's risky reversal of inside and outside is Outsider Art's latest challenge to an art world whose walls are crumbling fast.

News

June 10, 2019
Qu'est-ce que l'art brut ?

L’art brut est devenu un objet d’étude spécialisé et il occupe un champ de réflexion non négligeable tant du côté universitaire que dans le monde institutionnel de l’art.

June 8, 2019
The Bold, Blessed Paintings of a Sharecropper’s Daughter

An exhibition showcases the graphically powerful work of Mary T. Smith — a self-taught artist from Mississippi — in a rare, in-depth survey.

June 6, 2019
Will the Renovated MoMA Let Folk Art Back In?

Still mourning the American Folk Art Museum, a critic says, “We, and MoMA, don’t need any more Rauschenbergs, or Richters.” Bring on the outsider artists.

May 29, 2019
Both Celestial and Chthonian: ‘Walks to the Paradise Garden’ Marks a Valuable Addition to the History of Self-Taught Art

Writing at a watershed moment in the mainstream acceptance of outsider art, Jonathan Williams appears to have found in voices like Dial’s an antidote to all he felt was repugnant about the South and about America.

May 8, 2019
Hilma af Klint Proved That “Popular” Doesn’t Have to Mean “Stupid”

After the Guggenheim’s smash success, 6 artists who could become intelligent blockbusters.

February 7, 2019
What to See in New York Art Galleries This Week

Miguel Covarrubias’s caricatures; Mariam Ghani and Erin Ellen Kelly’s latest collaboration; Bill Traylor’s drawings; Vivian Maier’s self-portraits; and Hervé Guibert’s photographs of friends and lovers.

January 24, 2019
John Dunkley, an Outsider Artist Deep in the Heart of Jamaica

The Jamaican visionary John Dunkley (1891-1947) is the latest artist to decimate the distinctions between self-taught and trained, outsider and insider and folk and not folk.

January 22, 2019
What is Outsider Art and who coined the term first? The Outsider Art Fair

As the art world has grown and becomes less hierarchical, Outsider Art has increased in popularity. Held in New York, since 1993, and premiering in Paris ten years later, The Outsider Art Fair is central for the dissemination of Outsider art.

January 15, 2019
Art & Mind - Official Film Trailer - Amélie Ravalec

Art & Mind is a journey into art, madness and the unconscious. An exploration of visionary artists and the creative impulse, from the Flemish Masters of the Renaissance to the avant-garde movement of Surrealism and the unsung geniuses of Art Brut and Outsider Art.


January 12, 2019
What Is “Outsider” in Unthinkable Times?

Art’s uplifting power is unmistakably real; today, the works of the most original autodidacts feel more compelling than ever.

December 11, 2018
“Paa Joe: Gates of No Return”

American Folk Art Museum's exhibition "Paa Joe: Gates of No Return" featured in Time Out New York. 

November 15, 2018
Outliers and American Vanguard Art

On November 18, LACMA Los Angeles County Museum of Art will open the third leg of "Outliers and American Vanguard." 

November 12, 2018
JAPAN'S ART BRUT, ANOTHER LOOK - FROM NOVEMBER 30, 2018 TO APRIL 28, 2019

The exhibition Art Brut from Japan, another look offers works by twenty-four contemporary creators, presented for the first time in a museum institution in Europe.

November 12, 2018
Five More Museums Acquire Art From Souls Grown Deep Foundation

The New York Times reports that the Souls Grow Deep Foundation will help five more museums acquire works by self-taught African-American artists of the South. 

November 8, 2018
Pasafest

This weekend, the Friends of Pasaquan and the Pasaquan Preservation Society presents Pasafest, a festival to highlight the cultures of the Southeast and celebrate the life and traditions of the visionary artist St. EOM (Eddie Owens Martin).

October 4, 2018
Creating a Stage: The Collection of Marsha and Robin Williams

This phenomenal piece by Adolf Wölfli just sold for $795,000 at Sotheby's Auction House in the Marsha and Robin Williams sale!

October 3, 2018
The Utterly Original Bill Traylor

The New Yorker reviews the new Bill Traylor retrospective, now on view at the Smithsonian Institution through March 17, 2019.

October 2, 2018
Phyllis Kind, Powerhouse Gallerist, 1933–2018

Jerry Saltz​ remembers Phyllis Kind in his obituary on Vulture​

October 2, 2018
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Andrew Russeth has written a tribute to Phyllis Kind in ARTnews Magazine, which delves into her extraordinary life and chronicles her achievements in the art world. 

September 7, 2018
PÒTOPRENS: The Urban Artists of Port-au-Prince

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September 4, 2018
An Exquisite Nail in the Coffin for La Maison Rouge Art Gallery

After over 180 irreverent exhibitions, a beloved Paris gallery prepares to close its doors.

August 31, 2018
Charting the Divine Plan: The Art of Orra White Hitchcock (1796–1863)

"Charting the Divine" at the American Folk Art Museum has been selected by Jerry Saltz as one of this week's To Dos for New York Magazine.

August 20, 2018
"Expressions Unbound: American Outsider Art from the Andrew and Linda Safran Collection" coming to Tufts University Art Galleries this fall

Largest single-collection gift of works predominantly by African-American artists in university’s 166-year history

August 6, 2018
The American Folk Art Museum’s New Director Has a Plan to Raise the Profile of Self-Taught Art

Self-taught art is "genuine, immediate, and candid," says the museum's new director, Jason T. Busch.

August 1, 2018
American Folk Art Museum Announces New Director

The American Folk Art Museum announced Wednesday that Jason T. Busch will take over as its executive director in September, replacing Anne-Imelda Radice, who stepped down in March after nearly six years with the institution.

July 28, 2018
A Pilgrimage to Art Brut’s Austrian Heart

An Austrian museum presents a wide-ranging survey of works made over almost 50 years by residents and other autodidacts associated with the Art Brut Center Gugging, near Vienna.

July 26, 2018
Mushrooms, Magma and Love in a Time of Science

 

The New York Times reviews the current American Folk Art Museum's exhibition “Charting the Divine Plan: The Art of Orra White Hitchcock.” 

July 26, 2018
Rammellzee, From Living Letters to Living Sculpture

The universe of the graffiti master turned astrofunk storyteller in a bracing show reveals his lifelong battle against the limitations of form.

July 19, 2018
Rethinking (Art) History (without Reaching a Conclusion)

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July 11, 2018
At the Beginning, A Monologue: The Fate of Self-Taught Art

By conceiving the notion of art brut in a Europe devastated by the Second World War, French artist Jean Dubuffet questioned the underlying pretense behind the processes of artistic legitimization, dispossessing those authorities empowered to legislate in the art world.

July 11, 2018
Speaking in Tongues

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June 29, 2018
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Lisa Stone and Kenneth Burkhart wanted art that represented the “pulse of the city” for their show, “Chicago Calling: Art Against the Flow” at Intuit: The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art — but they had a problem: Of the 10 artists featured in the exhibit, only one is still living.

June 7, 2018
In Their Own Worlds

In recent decades, a tale unfolding within the larger story of contemporary art has been our gradually learning more about, and our trying to place, outsider artists.

June 3, 2018
Jean Dubuffet: Art of the outsider

Now ON DISPLAY here in New York: works by the French artist Jean Dubuffet. Years after his death, the art world is still taking full measure of the man. 

May 30, 2019
‘History Refused to Die’ Review: A Visual Equivalent of Jazz

The Met is exhibiting donations from the Souls Grown Deep Foundation—which preserves the legacy of self-taught contemporary African-American artists—including works by Thornton Dial and Gee’s Bend quilts.

May 29, 2018
A Storm of Art Brut from the Balkans

An exhibition of ecstatic, mystical work at the Halle Saint Pierre in Paris questions what is visionary, anti-pop, art brut, or art brutish.

May 26, 2018
Outsider Art Comes to the Metropolitan Museum

The entry of works from the Souls Grown Deep Foundation into the Met’s collection has prompted the museum to rethink the way it presents 20th-century art history.

May 25, 2018
8 Famous Artists Who Were Self-Taught

Humans have been making art since the dawn of time, often with little education in materials, techniques, or theory, yet the notion of the “self-taught artist” is a relatively new phenomenon.

May 17, 2018
Looking Back on William Hawkins, the Outsider Artist Who Became Wildly Popular in His 80s

There is this sense, in looking at Hawkins’s bold and humorous paintings, of returning to something one has always known.

May 4, 2018
The Insider’s Guide to Outsider Art

The exhibition features some compelling artwork, but it falls into the same traps and stereotypes that have plagued many museum exhibitions featuring outlier artists (if that’s what we’re supposed to call them now).

April 27, 2018
Biennale bonanza: artist line-ups revealed for Riga, Berlin and São Paulo shows

Curtain also lifts on Manifesta 12 and the 2019 Sharjah Biennial

April 18, 2018
Hidden Stash of Valuable Drawings Found in Walls of Artist’s Home

City officials in Boise, Idaho, recently made an unexpected discovery, unearthing thousands of dollars’ worth of drawings by a well-known artist hidden in the walls of his own home.

March 16, 2018
Odradek: The Form Which Things Assume in Oblivion

Kafka's perplexing creature made of tangled threads provides inspiration for a group show at Malmö Konsthall, Sweden

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