Dubuffet did not permit his Collection de l'Art Brut to circulate after its permanent installation in Lausanne, in 1976. While previous exhibitions like Harald Szeemann's 1972 edition of Documenta brought wider attention to the radical category of art brut in Europe, it was the 1979 Outsiders exhibition at London's Hayward Gallery that launched it internationally. Co-curators Roger Cardinal and Victor Musgrave expanded Dubuffet's original vision to include American artists such as Henry Darger, Martin Ramirez and Joseph Yoakum, opening the door to artists influenced by vernacular culture, a trait Dubuffet had previously rejected. What had started as a focused challenge to the rigid limits of the mid-20th century Paris art world was now emerging as an international phenomenon poised to unify a vast range of marginal art under the banner of Outsider Art.
By the early 1980s, Outsider Art began to radically transform the field of American Folk Art. Curators, collectors, scholars, and critics who had been struggling unsuccessfully to fit contemporary marginalized artists into the traditional category of Folk Art began to adopt the revolutionary spirit of Outsider Art. Collectors and curators began to make bold, contradictory acquisitions and new, risky curatorial moves that presented American and European artists side by side. The spark of Outsider Art illuminated Folk Art exhibitions throughout the 1980s, including the Corcoran Gallery's seminal Black Folk Art in America:1930-1980, Muffled Voices: Folk Artists in Contemporary Art at the Paine Webber Art Gallery in New York and Baking in the Sun: Visionary Images from the South at the University of Southwest Louisiana. These and other exhibitions forced a radical split between the traditional and the contemporary aspects of this field. Contemporary Folk Art became synonymous with Outsider Art, despite scholarly rejections on grounds of politically incorrectness.
By the early 1990s, Outsider Art was poised to challenge the arbitrary boundaries of the art world. LACMA's 1992 exhibition Parallel Visions: Modern Artists and Outsider Art demonstrated the powerful influence Outsiders had exerted on the mainstream, from the early 20th century on. During the last two decades, experimental curators and commercial art dealers have played a major role in staging hybrid shows including After Nature at the New Museum (2008), Dargerism at the American Folk Art Museum (2008), and Glossolalia at MoMA (2008), that combined Outsider and Insider Artists, rendering the constructs of mainstream and margin obsolete. The most profound development in the recent history of Outsider Art has been the global emergence of art fairs and events dedicated to the work of Outsiders such as the Outsider Art Fairs in New York and Paris, as well as the increasing inclusion of Outsiders in long-established international exhibitions such as Documenta, the Carnegie International and more recently, the groundbreaking Venice Biennale #55 (2013), named The Encyclopedic Palace by curator Massimiliano Gioni to honor the vision of Italian-American Outsider Artist Marino Auriti. Gioni's risky reversal of inside and outside is Outsider Art's latest challenge to an art world whose walls are crumbling fast.